6 minute read

Antonio Feijao study’s notes for the AWS Certified Security Specialty exam, re-certification in 2022.

Exam guide - https://d1.awsstatic.com/training-and-certification/docs-security-spec/AWS-Certified-Security-Specialty_Exam-Guide.pdf

Exam Readiness - AWS Certified Security - Specialty

Recommended AWS knowledge

The target candidate should have the following knowledge

  • The AWS shared responsibility model and its application
  • Security controls for workloads on AWS
  • Logging and monitoring strategies
  • Cloud security threat models
  • Patch management and security automation
  • Ways to enhance AWS security services with third-party tools and services
  • Disaster recovery controls, including BCP and backups
  • Encryption
  • Access control
  • Data retention

Summary of domains convered in the exam

  • Domain 1: Incident Response 12%
  • Domain 2: Logging and Monitoring 20%
  • Domain 3: Infrastructure Security 26%
  • Domain 4: Identity and Access Management 20%
  • Domain 5: Data Protection 22%

Domain 1 - Incident Response

1.1 Given an AWS abuse notice, evaluate the suspected compromised instance or exposed access keys.

  • Given an AWS Abuse report about an EC2 instance, securely isolate the instance as part of a forensic investigation.
  • Analyze logs relevant to a reported instance to verify a breach, and collect relevant data.
  • Capture a memory dump from a suspected instance for later deep analysis or for legal compliance reasons.

1.2 Verify that the Incident Response plan includes relevant AWS services.

  • Determine if changes to baseline security configuration have been made.
  • Determine if list omits services, processes, or procedures which facilitate Incident Response.
  • Recommend services, processes, procedures to remediate gaps.

1.3 Evaluate the configuration of automated alerting, and execute possible remediation of security related incidents and emerging issues.

  • Automate evaluation of conformance with rules for new/changed/removed resources.
  • Apply rule-based alerts for common infrastructure misconfigurations.
  • Review previous security incidents and recommend improvements to existing systems.

Domain 2 - Logging and Monitoring

2.1 Design and implement security monitoring and alerting.

  • Analyze architecture and identify monitoring requirements and sources for monitoring statistics.
  • Analyze architecture to determine which AWS services can be used to automate monitoring and alerting.
  • Analyze the requirements for custom application monitoring, and determine how this could be achieved.
  • Set up automated tools/scripts to perform regular audits.

2.2 Troubleshoot security monitoring and alerting.

  • Given an occurrence of a known event without the expected alerting, analyze the service functionality and configuration and remediate.
  • Given an occurrence of a known event without the expected alerting, analyze the permissions and remediate.
  • Given a custom application which is not reporting its statistics, analyze the configuration and remediate.
  • Review audit trails of system and user activity.

2.3 Design and implement a logging solution.

  • Analyze architecture and identify logging requirements and sources for log ingestion.
  • Analyze requirements and implement durable and secure log storage according to AWS best practices.
  • Analyze architecture to determine which AWS services can be used to automate log ingestion and analysis.

2.4 Troubleshoot logging solutions.

  • Given the absence of logs, determine the incorrect configuration and define remediation steps.
  • Analyze logging access permissions to determine incorrect configuration and define remediation steps.
  • Based on the security policy requirements, determine the correct log level, type, and sources.

Domain 3 - Infrastructure Security

3.1 Design edge security on AWS.

  • For a given workload, assess and limit the attack surface.
  • Reduce blast radius (e.g. by distributing applications across accounts and regions).
  • Choose appropriate AWS and/or third-party edge services such as WAF, CloudFront and Route 53 to protect against DDoS or filter application-level attacks.
  • Given a set of edge protection requirements for an application, evaluate the mechanisms to prevent and detect intrusions for compliance and recommend required changes.
  • Test WAF rules to ensure they block malicious traffic.

3.2 Design and implement a secure network infrastructure.

  • Disable any unnecessary network ports and protocols.
  • Given a set of edge protection requirements, evaluate the security groups and NACLs of an application for compliance and recommend required changes.
  • Given security requirements, decide on network segmentation (e.g. security groups and NACLs) that allow the minimum ingress/egress access required.
  • Determine the use case for VPN or Direct Connect.
  • Determine the use case for enabling VPC Flow Logs.
  • Given a description of the network infrastructure for a VPC, analyze the use of subnets and gateways for secure operation.

3.3 Troubleshoot a secure network infrastructure.

  • Determine where network traffic flow is being denied.
  • Given a configuration, confirm security groups and NACLs have been implemented correctly.

3.4 Design and implement host-based security.

  • Given security requirements, install and configure host-based protections including Inspector, SSM.
  • Decide when to use host-based firewall like iptables.
  • Recommend methods for host hardening and monitoring.

Domain 4 - Identity and Access Management

4.1 Design and implement a scalable authorization and authentication system to access AWS resources.

  • Given a description of a workload, analyze the access control configuration for AWS services and make recommendations that reduce risk.
  • Given a description how an organization manages their AWS accounts, verify security of their root user.
  • Given your organisation’s compliance requirements, determine when to apply user policies and resource policies.
  • Within an organisation’s policy, determine when to federate a directory services to IAM.
  • Design a scalable authorization model that includes users, groups, roles, and policies.
  • Identify and restrict individual users of data and AWS resources.
  • Review policies to establish that users/systems are restricted from performing functions beyond their responsibility, and also enforce proper separation of duties.

4.2 Troubleshoot an authorization and authentication system to access AWS resources.

  • Investigate a user’s inability to access S3 bucket contents.
  • Investigate a user’s inability to switch roles to a different account.
  • Investigate an Amazon EC2 instance’s inability to access a given AWS resource.

Domain 5 - Data Protection

5.1 Design and implement key management and use.

  • Analyze a given scenario to determine an appropriate key management solution.
  • Given a set of data protection requirements, evaluate key usage and recommend required changes.
  • Determine and control the blast radius of a key compromise event and design a solution to contain the same.

5.2 Troubleshoot key management.

  • Break down the difference between a KMS key grant and IAM policy.
  • Deduce the precedence given different conflicting policies for a given key.
  • Determine when and how to revoke permissions for a user or service in the event of a compromise.

5.3 Design and implement a data encryption solution for data at rest and data in transit.

  • Given a set of data protection requirements, evaluate the security of the data at rest in a workload and recommend required changes.
  • Verify policy on a key such that it can only be used by specific AWS services.
  • Distinguish the compliance state of data through tag-based data classifications and automate remediation.
  • Evaluate a number of transport encryption techniques and select the appropriate method (i.e. TLS, IPsec, client-side KMS encryption).

Key tools, technologies, and concepts might be covered on the exam

  • AWS CLI
  • AWS SDK
  • AWS Management Console
  • Network analysis tools (packet capture and flow captures)
  • SSH/RDP
  • Signature Version 4
  • TLS
  • Certificate management
  • Infrastructure as code (IaC) - cloudformation

AWS services and features

Management and Governance

Networking and Content Delivery

Security, Identity, and Compliance

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